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Early Pregnancy Symptoms: What to Expect and How to Cope?

Embarking on the path to early pregnancy brings along feelings, curiosity, and stress. From the joyous realisation of a missed period to the small indicators that show signs of a new life, it is important to understand the early pregnancy symptoms and be aware of effective coping strategies. In this article, we will focus on what to expect during the early stages of pregnancy and offer valuable tips to help you go through this transformative phase of your life in peace.

It is common to experience a mix of excitement and curiosity as soon as the first pregnancy symptoms, such as morning sickness, breast tenderness, or fatigue, start to appear. By understanding these early symptoms, we aim to give you knowledge and assurance that what you are experiencing is normal and shared by many expectant mothers. We will also explore practical coping strategies, including self-care practices, seeking support from loved ones, and maintaining open communication with your doctor. Let us begin this magical chapter of your life by welcoming the gift of life while balancing your well-being every step of the way.

1. Recognizing Early Pregnancy Symptoms

a. Understanding the Timing: 

To identify early pregnancy symptoms, it is important to know when they usually happen. Usually, these symptoms start showing within the first few weeks after conception. However, it is important to note that the timing can change from woman to woman. Some may experience symptoms as early as a week after conception, while others may not notice any changes until several weeks into the pregnancy. One should also keep in mind that the intensity and duration of symptoms can vary depending on the person. Some common early pregnancy symptoms include:

2. Common Early Pregnancy Symptoms:

a. Missed Period:

Positive result in a pregnancy test

A missed period is one of the most common and reliable signs of pregnancy. This can happen because the fertilised egg has attached itself to the uterine lining, leading to a missed period. If you have been sexually active and are experiencing a missed period, you should take a pregnancy test to confirm your pregnancy.

b. Fatigue and Increased Sleepiness:

Feeling more tired than usual and needing extra sleep is a common early sign of pregnancy. Hormonal changes, increased metabolic demands, and the body’s efforts to support the growing embryo usually lead to this fatigue.

c. Nausea and Morning Sickness:

Pregnant woman suffering from morning sickness

Nausea and vomiting, often called morning sickness, are among the most well-known early pregnancy symptoms. These happen because of hormones, especially when human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels go up.

d. Breast Changes and Tenderness:

Breast changes, such as increased sensitivity, swelling, and tenderness, can also occur early in pregnancy. These shifts are primarily caused by differences in hormones, particularly the increase in estrogen and progesterone.

e. Frequent Urination:

Increased urination results from hormonal changes and increased blood flow to the pelvic region. The growing uterus might also put pressure on the bladder, leading to a frequent need to pee.

f. Mood Swings and Emotional Changes:

During early pregnancy, shifts in hormones can impact brain neurotransmitters, which might result in mood swings, stronger feelings, and even irritability

g. Food Cravings:

Changes in taste and smell choices may lead to new food cravings. These cravings can be very different for individuals and are influenced mainly by hormonal changes.

h. Heightened Sense of Smell:

Lots of pregnant women notice that their sense of smell gets stronger in early pregnancy. This extra sensitivity to smells is thought to be because of hormone changes and might make you feel sick or really not like certain smells.

i. Bloating and Constipation:

Hormonal imbalance can also slow digestion, leading to bloating and constipation. The hormone progesterone, in general, has a relaxing effect on the digestive system, which can result in slower movement at times.

j. Light Spotting or Implantation Bleeding:

Some women may experience light spotting or implantation bleeding around their expected period. This occurs when the fertilised egg attaches itself to the uterine lining.

k. Increased Basal Body Temperature:

Woman checking her temperature

Basal body temperature (BBT) refers to your body’s resting temperature. In the beginning of pregnancy, hormonal changes, especially the creation of progesterone, can cause your BBT to go up and stay higher.

3. Causes and Mechanisms of Early Pregnancy Symptoms 

a. Hormonal Changes:

Hormonal changes in your body are typically the source of early pregnancy symptoms.. The hormone hCG, produced by the developing embryo, is responsible for most of the early signs of pregnancy. Followed by that, estrogen and progesterone, two other key hormones, also play significant roles in bringing about the changes that occur during this phase.

b. Metabolic and Physiological Shifts:

Pregnancy causes various metabolic and physiological changes in your body to support the growing foetus. Factors like increased blood flow, higher metabolic demands, and divided nutrient absorption are responsible for most of these symptoms.

4. Coping with Early Pregnancy Symptoms 

a. Missed Period:


Dealing with a missed period can be both joyful and worrisome at the same time. To go through this phase smoothly, it is important to deal with it with patience and self-care. Start by taking a home pregnancy test to get a clearer picture of your situation. If the test result is positive, congratulations! It is time to book an appointment with your doctor to confirm the pregnancy. On the other hand, if the test result is negative and your period has still not arrived after a few days, consider going to a doctor to discuss any health conditions that might be causing this delay. Remember to take care of your mental health by asking for support from your partner or loved ones or joining online communities of expectant mothers who can provide guidance and comfort during this exciting time.

b. Fatigue and Increased Sleepiness:

Pregnant woman yawning while sitting on her bed

Coping with fatigue and increased sleepiness involves practising rest and sleep. Listen to your body, take naps if needed, and form a quality sleep routine. Sometimes, relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can also help with fatigue.

c. Nausea and Morning Sickness:

Managing nausea and morning sickness can be challenging, but there are ways to reduce the symptoms. Eating small, frequent meals low in fat and avoiding triggers, such as strong smells or certain food items, can help. Additionally, experimenting with ginger, acupressure wristbands, or natural remedies may provide relief over time.

d. Breast Changes and Tenderness:

Wearing a supportive bra can bring comfort and lessen that uneasy feeling when coping with breast changes and pain. Applying a warm or cold compress to the breasts may help reduce soreness and swelling.

e. Frequent Urination:

Going for frequent urination involves staying hydrated but limiting fluid intake before bedtime. Emptying your bladder when urinating can also help reduce the sensation of needing to urinate frequently.

f. Mood Swings and Emotional Changes:

Coping with mood swings and emotional changes during early pregnancy mainly involves self-care practices. Engage in activities promoting relaxation, such as yoga, journaling, or leisure time in nature. Sharing your feelings honestly with your partner, family, and friends can help you feel supported and understood.

g. Food Cravings:

Dealing with food cravings involves finding a balance. Adopt healthy food choices while allowing yourself to give in to cravings in moderation. To reduce the recurring feeling of nausea, try out different foods or cooking techniques.

h. Heightened Sense of Smell:

Pregnant woman feeling sick because of smell of popcorn

Reduce your exposure to strong smells by using scents or aromas that provide comfort, or carrying a handkerchief with a pleasant scent can help manage the increased sense of smell.

i. Bloating and Constipation:

Coping with bloating and constipation includes consuming fibre-rich foods, staying hydrated, and engaging in moderate exercise. Regular physical activity can help with digestion and promote healthy bowel movements.

j. Light Spotting or Implantation Bleeding:

It is common to experience light spotting or implantation bleeding, which typically goes away on its own.. Resting, avoiding exhausting activities, and observing the situation can help reduce anxiety. If you have any other concerns, contacting your doctor is recommended.

k. Increased Basal Body Temperature:

If you are tracking your basal body temperature, looking carefully for any changes is essential. Consulting with your doctor for guidance and understanding temperature patterns throughout your cycle can provide information about your fertility and pregnancy details.

5. Seeking Support and Medical Advice 

a. Building a Support Network:

Sharing experiences with your family and friends who have gone through pregnancy can make you feel like you belong and help you understand. You can also join online communities and local support groups for this same sense of connection and understanding.

b. Consulting with Your Doctor:

Woman Talking To Therapist


If you experience severe or continuing symptoms or have concerns about any phase of your pregnancy, it is important to consult with your doctor. They can provide personalised guidance, address your specific problems, and ensure your and your baby’s well-being.

Experiencing early pregnancy symptoms is a normal part of the journey to motherhood. You can move through this phase comfortably and confidently by recognizing these symptoms. Understand their causes and apply the appropriate coping strategies. Remember to practise self-care, ask for support from loved ones, and consult with your doctor when needed. Each symptom is a reminder of an amazing process taking place within your body that is bringing you closer to the joyous arrival of your baby.

The article has been approved by Dr M. Rajini, Senior Consultant – Obstetrics and Gynaecology, CARE Hospitals

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