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Long-term Risks Of PCOD And PCOS: Beyond The Surface

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Polycystic Ovary Disorder (PCOD) are common endocrine disorders affecting women. Beyond their immediate impact on fertility and menstrual health, this article explores the long-term risks associated with PCOD and PCOS. These risks include metabolic, cardiovascular, mental health, and reproductive implications.

Polycystic Ovary Disorder (PCOD) and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are not limited to their immediate impact on reproductive health. These hormonal disorders can have long-term consequences that extend beyond their initial symptoms. Understanding the enduring risks associated with PCOD and PCOS is crucial for individuals living with these conditions and their doctors. In this guide, we will look beneath the surface, exploring the potential long-term health risks they pose, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological implications. Recognizing these extended risks empowers both individuals and doctors to proactively manage these conditions. This approach helps optimize overall health and reduce the potential long-term impact on their lives.

1. Metabolic Risks Associated with PCOD and PCOS

a. Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

PCOD and PCOS are often linked to insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin. This can lead to elevated blood sugar levels, increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes—a long-term metabolic concern associated with these conditions.

b. Obesity and Weight Management Challenges

overweight woman in stress

Many women with PCOD and PCOS struggle with weight management due to hormonal imbalances. Obesity, in turn, triggers the symptoms of these conditions. The long-term risk lies in the potential development of obesity-related complications such as heart disease and metabolic syndrome.

2. Risks Of PCOD And PCOS: Cardiovascular Implications

a. Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Women with PCOD and PCOS face a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and dyslipidemia. The development of atherosclerosis is significantly contributed to by these conditions. In the long term, they may manifest as heart disease, underscoring the importance of managing cardiovascular health.

b. Early Onset of Cardiovascular Issues

The women has heart disease- Risks Of PCOD And PCOS

The hormonal imbalances characteristic of PCOD and PCOS can lead to an early onset of cardiovascular issues. This accelerates the risk of heart-related complications, making cardiovascular health a critical aspect of long-term management for women with these conditions.

3. Mental Health Challenges

a. Anxiety and Depression

PCOD and PCOS are not just physical conditions; they can significantly impact mental health. The hormonal fluctuations and the emotional toll of dealing with fertility issues and unpredictable symptoms may increase the risk of anxiety and depression.

b. Body Image and Self-Esteem Issues

woman with facial hair- Risks Of PCOD And PCOS

The physical manifestations of PCOD and PCOS, such as weight gain and hirsutism, can impact body image and self-esteem. Long-term mental health risks include the development of body dysmorphic disorders and persistent self-esteem challenges.

4. Risks Of PCOD And PCOS: Reproductive Complications

a. Infertility and Long-term Fertility Concerns

While infertility is a well-known immediate risk of PCOD and PCOS, long-term fertility concerns persist even with successful conception. Women with these conditions may face challenges in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. They could also be at a higher risk of complications such as gestational diabetes and preeclampsia.

b. Endometrial Cancer Risk

woman with abdominal pain- Risks Of PCOD And PCOS

Prolonged exposure to unopposed estrogen due to irregular menstrual cycles and anovulation in PCOD and PCOS increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia. This in turn can lead to endometrial cancer in the long term. Regular gynaecological screenings become crucial for early detection.

5. Hormonal Imbalances and Thyroid Disorders

a. Impact on Thyroid Function

PCOD and PCOS can influence thyroid function, leading to hormonal imbalances. Long-term risks include the development of thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, further complicating the endocrine profile and requiring ongoing management.

b. Androgen Excess and Hirsutism

hirsutism- Risks Of PCOD And PCOS

Elevated levels of androgens, commonly seen in PCOD and PCOS, contribute to symptoms like hirsutism (excessive hair growth). The long-term impact of this extends beyond cosmetic concerns. It potentially leads to conditions such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and adrenal disorders.

Also read: When To Worry About PCOD And PCOS Symptoms?

6. Bone Health Complications

a. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis

Hormonal imbalances in PCOD and PCOS, notably lower estrogen levels, can impact bone health. The long-term risk includes an increased likelihood of developing osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weakened bones and an elevated risk of fractures.

b. Challenges in Maintaining Bone Density

Natural sources of vitamin d and calcium

The irregular menstrual cycles and hormonal fluctuations associated with PCOD and PCOS can interfere with the normal processes that maintain bone density. Adequate calcium intake, vitamin D supplementation, and lifestyle interventions become crucial for reducing long-term bone health risks.

7. Lifestyle Management and Preventive Strategies

a. Importance of Regular Exercise

In managing the long-term risks of PCOD and PCOS, regular exercise plays a significant role. Physical activity helps in weight management, improves insulin sensitivity, and positively influences cardiovascular health, mitigating several associated complications.

b. Balanced Diet and Nutritional Support

pregnancy cravings

A balanced diet is essential for managing metabolic risks. Emphasizing whole foods, controlling carbohydrate intake, and ensuring adequate nutrient levels contribute to overall health. Nutritional support can play a preventive role in addressing long-term complications.

Also read: Managing Nutrition: Diet For PCOD And PCOS Patients

8. Regular Monitoring and Medical Intervention

a. Routine Health Check-ups

Regular health check-ups are crucial for monitoring the long-term risks associated with PCOD and PCOS. Periodic assessments of cardiovascular health, metabolic parameters, and gynaecological screenings can help in early detection and intervention.

b. Individualized Treatment Plans


Given the varied presentation of PCOD and PCOS, individualized treatment plans are important. Tailored approaches considering each woman’s unique health profile and risk factors can enhance the effectiveness of long-term management strategies.

9. Psychological Support and Holistic Well-being

a. Therapeutic Support for Mental Health

Acknowledging the psychological impact, incorporating therapeutic support becomes essential. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and counselling can help women manage anxiety, depression, and body image concerns, contributing to long-term mental well-being.

b. Holistic Approaches for Overall Health


Promoting holistic well-being involves addressing physical, mental, and emotional aspects. Yoga, mindfulness, and stress management practices serve as complementary approaches to medical interventions. They contribute to fostering a comprehensive approach to long-term health and well-being.

Understanding the long-term risks of PCOD and PCOS is crucial for effective management and preventive strategies. Beyond immediate concerns, these conditions have far-reaching implications for metabolic, cardiovascular, mental, and reproductive health. Holistic and individualized approaches, including lifestyle modifications, medical interventions, and psychological support, are essential for reducing risks and promoting the well-being of women with PCOD and PCOS. Regular monitoring, early intervention, and a focus on overall health contribute to a proactive and empowered approach to navigating the complexities of these endocrine disorders.

This article is approved by Dr. Smita Satpathy, Senior Consultant Gynecology, CARE Hospitals.

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